变更管理 项目变更控制过程

laofo · 2009年05月27日 · 0 次阅读

项目变更控制过程(一)作者:Monica Yan http://www.csai.cn

Introduction (介绍) Purpose (目的) This document describes the process that is to be used for requesting and managing changes to work products created or maintained by the members of . This process will facilitate communication about requested changes among the stakeholders of , provide a common process for resolving requested changes and reported problems, and reduce the uncertainty around the existence, state, and outcome of a change that has been requested in a work product. 该文档描述<项目>成员对已创建或维护工件提出变更请求和管理变更时使用的过程。此过程促进了变更请求在<项目>涉众之间的沟通,以解决变更请求,已报告的问题,以及减少实体,陈述和在一个工件中被提出变更的结果存在的不确定性提供了共同的过程。 Scope (范围) Any stakeholder of can submit the following types of issues to the change control system: · requests for requirements changes (additions, deletions, modifications, deferrals) in software currently under development · reports of problems in current production or beta test systems · requests for enhancements in current production systems · requests for new development projectsThis change control process applies to baselined work products created or managed by the members of the , including: · software that has been released to production or is in beta test · requirements specifications for · group procedures and processes · user and technical documentationThe following work product classes are exempted from this change control process: · work products that are still under development, except for requirements changes requested in new projects · interim or temporary work products created during the course of a project · any work products intended for individual use only 任何一个<项目>涉众都能向变更控制系统提交下列类型的问题: ·在软件处于开发阶段的需求变更请求 (添加, 删除, 修改, 延期) ·产品或β测试系统的问题报告 ·产品系统改进的变更请求 ·新开发项目的变更请求该变更控制过程应用于由<项目>成员创建或管理的已基线化的工件, 包括: ·已经被发布为产品或处在β测试阶段的软件 ·<项目>需求规格说明书 ·小组程序和过程 ·用户和技术文档下列工件类被排除在这个变更控制过程之外: ·正在开发的工件, 不包括在新项目中提出的需求变更 ·在项目过程中创建的中间或临时工件 ·任何仅为个人使用的工件 Definitions (定义) Term (术语) Definition (定义) Issue (变更请求) An item that someone has submitted to the change control system that describes a software problem, a requested enhancement, a proposed change in requirements for a product under development, or a new project being proposed. 已向变更控制系统提交的项,它主要描述一个软件问题,项目中被提出的改进,以及为正在开发的产品或一个被提议的新项目在需求方面提出的变更。 Stakeholder (涉众) Someone who is affected by or who can influence the project.所有会受到项目结果影响或可以影响项目结果的人。 Roles and Responsibilities (角色和职责) [b] Roles and Responsibilities (角色和职责)[/b] [table=90%][tr][td=1,1,26%] Role (角色) [/td][td] Description (描述)[/td][/tr][tr][td] CCB Chair (变更控制委员会主席)[/td][td] Chairperson of the change control board; has final decision-makingauthority if the CCB does not reach agreement; asks someone to be theEvaluator for each change request and asks someone to be the Modifierfor each approved changerequest 变更控制委员会主席,在变更控制委员会成员意见不一致时有最终决定权,并对每个变更请求安排评估人以及对每个批准的变更请求安排修改人。[/td][/tr][tr][td] Change Control Board (变更控制委员会)[/td][td] The group that decides to approve or reject proposed changes for a specific project 决定批准或拒绝特定项目中提出的变更请求的团队。 [/td][/tr][tr][td] Evaluator (评估人)[/td][td] The person whom the CCB Chair asks to analyze the impact of a proposed change 由变更控制委员会主席指定对已提出变更的影响进行分析的人员。[/td][/tr][tr][td] Modifier (修改人)[/td][td] The person who is assigned responsibility for making changes in awork product in response to an approved change request; updates thestatus of the request over time 负责在一个工件中实现已被批准的变更请求,并随时更新变更请求状态的人员。[/td][/tr][tr][td] Originator (发起人)[/td][td] The person who submits a new change request 提交新的变更请求的人员。[/td][/tr][tr][td] Project Manager (项目经理) [/td][td] The person who is responsible for overall planning and tracking of the development project activities 负责整个项目开发的计划并跟踪项目开发活动的人员。[/td][/tr][tr][td] Verifier (验证人)[/td][td] The person who determines whether a change was made correctly 负责判断变更是否被正确执行的人员。[/td][/tr][/table] [b] Change Request Status(变更请求状态)[/b] Status Changes(变更状态)A requested change will pass through severalpossible statuses during its life. These statuses, and the criteria formoving from one status to another, are depicted in the state-transitiondiagram in Figure 1 and described in the Possible Statuses table. 在整个需求变更过程中会由几种可能的状态来表示。这些状态和从一种状态转移到另一种状态的条件会在变更请求状态的转换图 (图 1) 中被描绘出来,并在下面可能的状态表中描述。 Notifications(通知)Any time an issue status is changed, the changecontrol tool will send an e-mail notification automatically to theissue Originator, the issue Modifier, and/or the CCB Chair, asspecified below. 变更请求状态一旦发生改变,变更控制工具会按照下面所述自动发一个电子邮件通知发起人、修改人以及/或变更控制委员会主席。 Possible Statuses(可能的状态) [table=90%][tr][td=1,1,29%] Status(状态)[/td][td] Meaning(含义)[/td][/tr][tr][td] Approved(已批准)[/td][td] The CCB decided to implement the request and allocated it to aspecific future build or product release. The CCB Chair has assigned aModifier.变更控制委员会决定接受此变更并分配其在某个特定版本中执行。 变更控制委员会主席指派给一个修改人。[/td][/tr][tr][td] Canceled(已取消)[/td][td] The Originator or someone else decided to cancel an approved change.发起人或其他相关人员决定取消已批准的变更。[/td][/tr][tr][td] Change Made(实施变更)[/td][td] The Modifier has completed implementing the requested change.修改人完成变更。[/td][/tr][tr][td] Closed(结束)[/td][td] The change made has been verified (if required), the modified workproducts have been installed, and the request is nowcompleted.实施的变更已被验证(如果需要),完成修改的工件已经被安装,此刻需求变更完成。[/td][/tr][tr][td] Evaluated(已评估)[/td][td] The Evaluator has performed an impact analysis of the request.评估人已经进行了需求变更的影响分析。[/td][/tr][tr][td] Rejected(已拒绝)[/td][td] The CCB decided not to implement the requested change.变更控制委员会决定不作变更。[/td][/tr][tr][td] Submitted(已提交)[/td][td] The Originator has submitted a new issue to the change control system.发起人向变更控制系统提交一个新的变更请求。[/td][/tr][tr][td] Verified(已验证)[/td][td] The Verifier has confirmed that the modifications in affected work products were made correctly.验证人已确认修改在所有受影响的工件中被正确实施。[/td][/tr][/table] Figure 1. State-Transition Diagram for Issue Statuses.(图 1,变更请求状态转换图)

Procedure(程序) Entry Criteria(开始条件) Change control board is established for the project. Baselined work products exist. The Originator has submitted a valid issue or change request with all necessary information to the CCB Chair. The change control tool sets the issue’s initial status to Submitted. 已建立项目变更控制委员会。 存在已基线化的工件。 发起人提交正确的变更请求或将变更请求和所有必要的信息提交给变更控制委员会主席。 变更控制工具将变更请求的初始状态设置为已提交。 Tasks(任务)

  1. The CCB Chair assigns an Evaluator.
  2. 变更控制委员会主席指定一个评估人 。
  3. The Evaluator assesses the issue as to feasibility, whether it really pertains to the indicated project, whether a reported problem can be reproduced, an estimate of the labor hours needed to implement the change, and so on. For a requirement change, use the Impact Analysis Checklist for Requirements Changes, the Effort Estimation Worksheet for a Requirement Change, and the Impact Analysis Report Template. Change status to Evaluated.
    1. 评估人对变更请求进行可行性评估,判断其是否真正符合项目特征,被报告的问题是否能被重复产生,估计实施变更所需工作量等等。对一个需求变更,用影响分析检查表,工作量估计表,以及影响分析报告模板进行评估。改变状态为已评估。
  4. The CCB decides whether the requested change should be made (or the reported problem fixed) at this time, at some point in the future, or not at all. Input should be solicited from others potentially affected by the change before making the decision.
  5. 变更控制委员会决定此次提出的变更是否应实施(或已报告的问题是否应解决),或部分变更在将来解决,或根本不解决。 决定前必须从其他被变更影响的潜在方获取必要的意见。
  6. If the change was accepted, the CCB Chair assigns a Modifier, sets the status to Approved, enters any explanation in the Response attribute, and schedules the work. The Project Manager negotiates any necessary changes in project commitments with affected stakeholders. Tool sends e-mail to the assigned Modifier and the Originator.
  7. 如果接受变更请求,变更控制委员会主席会指定一个修改人,同时设置变更请求状态为已批准,并在回应属性中填入相应解释。项目经理在项目会议中同涉众协商任何必需的变更。变更控制工具发电子邮件给已指定的修改人和发起人。
  8. If the change was rejected, the CCB Chair sets the status to Rejected and enters an explanation of why in the Response attribute. Tool sends e-mail to the Originator and CCB Chair.
  9. 如果变更被拒绝,变更控制委员会主席设置变更状态为已拒绝并在回应属性中解释拒绝的原因。变更控制工具发电子邮件给发起人和变更控制委员会主席。
  10. The CCB Chair and the Originator determine whether formal verification of the change will be required, following the procedure in the Verification section. If so, they select the verification method to be used and the CCB Chair assigns a Verifier.
    1. 变更控制委员会主席和发起人决定是否需要对变更进行正式的验证,具体的步骤在下面的验证部分中描述。如果是,他们选择使用的验证方法并由变更控制委员会主席指定验证人。
  11. The Modifier makes the necessary changes in the affected work products and notifies any other affected parties if corresponding changes need to be made, such as user documentation, help screens, and tests.
  12. 修改人在受影响的工件中实施必要的变更,如果在其他方也需要实施相应变更则应通知所有其他受影响方,如用户文档、帮助屏幕、测试文档等。
  13. The Project Manager updates the project plans, task lists, and schedules to reflect the impact of the change on project work remaining to be done. The Project Manager revises any task dependencies as necessary.
  14. 项目经理更新项目计划,任务清单,和时间表,以反映变更对已做或在做工作的影响。如果需要,项目经理修订任务的依赖性。
  15. If it becomes apparent during the work that the requested change is not feasible after all, the Modifier notifies the CCB Chair, who may then set the status to Canceled. The Modifier backs out of any modifications made, restoring the work products to their previous baseline. Tool sends e-mail to the Originator, CCB Chair, Modifier, and Project Manager.
  16. 最后如果在工作期间发现需求变更是不可行的,修改人应通知变更控制委员会主席,由他作出取消决定并设置状态为已取消。修改人返回未做修改状态,恢复以前已基线化的工件。变更控制工具发电子邮件给发起人,变更控制委员会主席,修改人和项目经理。
  17. When the change is completed, the Modifier sets the status to Change Made, updates the issue in the database with appropriate notes in the Response attribute, and enters the hours of effort that were required to make the change in the Actual Hours attribute. Tool sends e-mail to the Originator and CCB Chair.
  18. 当变更完成时,修改人设置变更状态为实施变更,在回应属性中对更新的变更请求加入适当的注释,并在实际时间属性中输入实施变更所花的实际工作量。变更控制工具发电子邮件给发起人和变更控制委员会主席。 Verification(验证)
  19. The Modifier notifies the Originator and Verifier (if one was assigned) that the change has been made and makes all modified work products available to the people responsible for verification.
  20. 修改人通知发起人和验证人(如果已经有指定的验证人)变更已经被实施,并且所有已修改的工件已经可以进行验证。
  21. The Verifier performs the agreed-upon verification steps.
  22. 验证人执行验证过程。
  23. If verification is successful, the Verifier sets the status to Verified. Tool sends e-mail to the Originator and Modifier.
  24. 如果验证通过,验证人设置变更状态为已验证。变更控制工具发电子邮件给修改人和发起人。
  25. If verification is not successful, the Verifier sets the status back to Approved and describes the problem in the Response attribute. Tool sends e-mail to the Originator and Modifier. The process resumes with Task #7.
  26. 如果验证未通过,验证人设置变更状态为已批准并在回应属性中描述具体的问题。变更控制工具发电子邮件给修改人和发起人。此过程会从任务 #7 重新开始进行。
  27. For a problem report issue or an enhancement request issue, the Modifier installs the modified work product as appropriate and updates the product baseline. For requirements changes, the Modifier updates version numbers on all modified work products per the project’s version control procedure, checks them back into the version control system, updates requirements traceability information and requirements status attributes as necessary, and updates the requirements baseline.
  28. 对于一个问题报告或增加需求的发布,修改人安装已修改后的工件并更新产品基线。对于需求变更,修改人按照每个项目的版本控制程序更新所有已修改工件的版本号,如果需要应更新需求追溯信息和需求状态属性,并更新需求基线。
  29. The Modifier sets the status to Closed. Tool sends e-mail to the Originator and CCB Chair.
  30. 修改人设置变更状态为已结束。变更控制工具发电子邮件给发起人和变更控制主席。 Change Control Status Reporting(变更控制状态报告)The CCB Chair generates a report at the end of each month summarizing the status of the contents of the change control database. These reports identify all status changes made in the previous month, list the status of all change requests that currently have a status other than Rejected or Closed, and indicate the level of change activity. The project leadership team reviews these reports to determine whether any corrective actions are necessary. 变更控制委员会主席根据变更控制数据库的内容在月末汇总出变更控制数据的报告。这些报告表现出上一个月所有发生的变更的状态,列出当前所有需求变更的状态但已拒绝和已完成的除外,并指出变更活跃程度。项目管理组查看这些报告以确定每个活动的正确性。 Exit Criteria(退出条件) o The status of the request is either Rejected or Closed. o The modified work products have been correctly installed into the appropriate locations. o The Originator, CCB Chair, and Project Manager have been notified of the current status. o Pertinent requirements traceability information has been updated. o 变更请求的状态为已拒绝或已结束。 o 所有修改后的工件被正确安装到适当的位置。 o 发起人、变更控制主席、和项目经理已被告知当前的状态。 o 相关的需求追溯信息已被更新。
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